casting is the one of the oldest manufacturing processes,and is one of the first step in manufacturing most products.
in this process material is first liquified by the properly heating in its suitable furnace and is then poured into a
 previously prepared mould cavity trimmed and cleaned to shape.the following need to be explored for casting process
1- preperation of moulds and pattern
2-melting and pouring of liquified matel
3-solidification and further cooling at room temperature
4-defects and inspection.

although there are several process assocaited with the casting process the following common
features are valid for the various casting process in the context of the four areas just mentioned.
1-the melting temperature of the job and the mould material
2- the solublity of and the chemical reaction between the job and mould material
3- the solublity of the atmosphere in the material at different temperatures to be encountered in the casting operation
4- the thermal properties such as conductivity and coefficient of linear expension of both the mold and job materials.

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